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Istanbul: Notes on the Eternal City’s Urban Problems and Ideas

I had the pleasure to visit to Istanbul last week. This was just a leisure trip to explore the city (and have a break from work), but when roaming the streets I quickly noted that there’s no way I can keep myself from reflecting on what I’m seeing and hearing. I also had the privilege to meet with two local university students and explore different faces of the city together with them. Based on our wonderful talks and my observations, I decided to write a special feature on Istanbul that on the one hand highlights pressing issues in the city’s planning scene and on the other displays ideas other cities could learn and benefit from. This piece is not meant to be a comprehensive overview of Istanbul’s urban planning and policies by any means, but a collection of different aspects a Finnish urbanist encountered and found interesting during five days in the city.

Istanbul – The New York of the East

If I needed to capture Istanbul’s general atmosphere, I’d have to go with twinning it with New York City. On the surface, these two cities may seem worlds apart, but they actually have a lot in common. The famous saying “there’s no place like New York City” is equally fit for Istanbul as it is for the Big Apple.

Istanbul’s streets are vibrant. This is the Taksim end of İstiklâl Caddesi, one of Istanbul’s main shopping streets.

For starters, Istanbul is huge. The Turkish Statistical Institute has counted the city to have 14.4 million inhabitants, but I was told on several occasions that 16 million would be more truthful. In either case, the city is big. Its neighborhoods are dense and packed with life, and its streets are energetic and always lively – Istanbul is a city that never sleeps.

Just like NYC, Istanbul is also multicultural and cosmopolitan. A characteristic that has been present for much over a thousand years. Istanbul has served as the capital of the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman empires, but more importantly, the city has been located in an intersection of flows of people and ideas. Istanbul is a magnet for people seeking to make their dreams come true.

Both cities are also iconic and familiar to us from popular culture and/or history books. Even if James Bond has been to Istanbul on three occasions against just once to NYC, Istanbul is obviously much stronger on the history book front. Just its location between continents on the Bosphorus and role as a cultural bridge between Europe and the Middle East throughout ages are beyond epic. Not to mention Istanbul’s selection of famous religious landmarks and places of grand architecture such as the Hagia Sophia and Blue Mosque.

Moreover, both cities are important cultural capitals, centers of trade and unrivaled economic powerhouses. One distinct mutual feature is that both cities have significant fashion industry clusters. Turkey is an important cotton producer and this isn’t nowadays limited to just manufacturing, but there’s also increasingly more focus on design and cultivating local brands.

Urban Problems to Tackle

A major issue degrading Istanbul’s livability is definitely the city’s traffic and its partner in crime, car-oriented urban planning. TomTom’s annual Traffic Index identifies Istanbul as the worst congested city in the world. Cars are literally everywhere from the small back streets to the wide urban arterials that cut through the city. Don’t expect to find an abundance of traffic lights or crosswalks for pedestrians. Sidewalks are also usually very narrow or non-existent. Cycling infrastructure is completely unheard of.

Walking about in the city means part zigzagging between parked cars, the tiny sidewalk, and the driving lane, part dodging cars when in need to cross the street. The more the traffic on a given street, the better an idea it is to tag along with a local street-crosser. He or she knows what they’re doing. In substitute to our orderly traffic systems here in the North, special codes of conduct between drivers and pedestrians seem to orchestrate traffic in Istanbul. Various hand motions, establishing eye contact, and types of honks structure the city’s mobility.

A great thing is that the city is actually actively trying to do something to solve the traffic jams by developing its public transport system. Istanbul’s main modes for transportation are buses, a bus rapid transit system, the metro, trams (both modern and historic), ferries, and a horde of minibuses and vans. In addition, there’s a cool funicular ride. Delightfully, the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality has ambitious plans for extending its metro network to a 641km-long system by 2023. In the year 2004, the city had an urban rail network of just 45 km.

This is crucially important not only because of the congestion problems, but at least equally importantly for the economic vitality of the city. Istanbul is facing a serious urbanization problem. The city’s annual population growth rate is 3.45%, which translates as an increase of roughly half a million inhabitants each year. Many new arrivals are low-skilled and don’t have the opportunity to choose where they live. Without a quick and expansive transportation system the ones who are most disadvantaged won’t have access to jobs simply because distances grow too big.

Other arrivals come with crushed dreams. Altogether 1.7 million refugees of the Syrian civil war have fled to Turkey and Istanbul is home to at least 300 000 of them. The poorest of the refugees live on the streets and their income is dependent on begging. It’s absolutely heartbreaking to see families with children coping at street corners all around the city.

Massive urban growth also comes with greed. When there’s an endless flow of incomers needing housing and jobs, there’s big business. A major problem affecting Istanbul is a culture of non-participatory and corrupt urban planning. If there is official planning involved in the first place before the construction cranes arise, that is. The most notorious example of this is the dispute over Gezi Park at Taksim square in 2013. Although also influenced with other political tensions, the key reason massive protests sparked off in Istanbul was the authoritarian plan to demolish Gezi Park in favor of new construction.

Istanbul’s skyline is evolving all the time with new skyscrapers. There are construction cranes to every direction around the historic core.

Another important reason Gezi park’s fate led to protests is that Istanbul has very few green areas. If you look at the city from any of the many panorama spots, many of the larger green areas you’ll see are actually not parks but cemeteries. My friend told me that “if they were parks and not cemeteries, they’d already be developed into apartments and offices”. It’s obviously difficult to add new parks in an already existing and dense urban fabric, but one potential solution is to transform the city’s waterfronts into park-like people-places. At the moment a great deal of the waterfront, especially around the Golden Horn, is underperforming. In many places the shoreline seems to be closed to the public and is occupied by obsolete harbor infrastructure. It might be worthwhile examining if these areas could be transformed into leafy public open spaces.

Another outcome of the greedy non-participatory planning approach is that new development doesn’t seem match with how the inhabitants would like to see the city developed. One example is the Golden Horn Metro Bridge which opened for traffic about a year ago. The cable-stayed bridge has a very modern design that doesn’t really fit into the historic context of the area. My friend’s opinion pretty much says it all: “I hate it”. He also couldn’t understand the apparent need to physically transform Istanbul into New York through constructing a forest of skyscrapers on the fringes of the historic core: “Istanbul is a historic city like Rome. It’s not Dubai. The historic atmosphere needs to be protected”.

The Golden Horn Metro Bridge (in the background). Curiously, there’s a metro station right in the middle of the bridge. Handy. The photo is taken from Topkapi Palace,

Istanbul Inspiration

In addition to the pressing urban problems that need solving, I luckily also came across some ideas that cities in Finland and around the world could get inspired from.

Multiculturalism is a contemporary item on many urban policy lists. Sadly, especially here in Finland it gets way too often placed in the ‘problems’ section of those lists. Istanbul is a great example of a city made up of different languages, ethnicities, religions, traditions, as well as diverse social and economic backgrounds. This has been a defining element of the city for thousands of years and reminds that cultural diversity in urban areas is not a modern invention nor is it an obstacle on the path towards becoming a world-class city. It’s quite the opposite.

Palm Sunday mass in the Church of St. George, led by Bartholomew I, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.

Nowadays we also like to discuss about the sharing economy and its possibilities. In Istanbul I noted that the idea of sharing doesn’t need to be limited to the perspective of consumers but can also take miniature-sized forms on the service-producer side. On a break from exploring, I was introduced to a tasty local beverage called Boza. This is a very thick drink that’s often served with cinnamon and roasted chickpeas. Interestingly, before going to the Boza joint we went to a tiny shop just opposite to it to buy a bag of roasted chickpeas. Also everyone else entering the Boza shop did the same. It’s cool how the other establishment specializes in making and serving Boza, the other one roasts the chickpeas.

In Üsküdar on the Asian side of Istanbul, we sat down in a small park to enjoy the view over the Bosphorus. Eventually we got to enjoy the moment with a refreshing cup of Turkish coffee. This was possible because the coffee shop next door had decided to expand their services to the park. If you wanted to order something, they’d bring a small portable table to your park bench. Very convenient for the thirsty park visitor. And also for the park itself – it’s a low-cost way to make sure someone takes care of the park.

Streetfood can be found everywhere in the city. This guy is selling roasted chestnuts and boiled & grilled corn.

Similarly, the city’s vibrant streets and public spaces offer an endless flow of clientele for various street food vendors. In addition to tasty snacks, these guys provide extra eyes on the street (although there really is no shortage of eyes on Istanbul’s streets) and their carts provide a gathering place you may want to have parked in front of your business. According to my friend, the fundamental ingredient that enables these kinds of collaborations between entrepreneurs and on the public-private nexus is “respect for each other”.

Istanbul’s built environment also presented some take-home ideas. One of them is that paint can be a simple but enormously powerful tool for neighborhood revitalization and beautification. Some parts of Istanbul, like the age-old Balat neighborhood, are full of run-down buildings or are just generally lacking details that get your spirits high. To make their surroundings more lovable, locals have dipped their brushes and painted doors, stairs, and walls with bright colors.

Adding density is an issue that troubles many planners and decision-makers in Finland. After decades of not mixing anything with something else in our city-building culture, we are now careful to go forward with mixing functions even though there’s pressure and demand to do so. In Istanbul, mixing different functions is pretty much the norm. And I don’t mean just on the neighborhood level but also very much on the block and building level. Whatever the combination between apartments, offices, retail, manufacturing and public uses in a building, I’m sure they have multiple examples of how to deal with it. Furthermore, one of the main shopping streets, İstiklâl Caddesi, is all retail during the day but transforms into a nightlife destination for the night shift. A practical symbiosis to keep the area alive for 24 hours.

Lastly, I have a suggestion I believe Istanbul could greatly benefit from: please hear out what your youth has to say about the city’s urban policies. The average age in Istanbul is below 25. Following rapid economic growth and urbanization, I’m quite confident there’s an unimaginably wide generation gap between those in power now and those who have grown in the age of the internet and intensified globalization. In order for Istanbul to come up with solutions to its pressing urban problems, the youth must be recognized as drivers of positive change. To my experience, today’s students are well aware of what’s happening elsewhere in the world and are constantly questioning the sustainability of the city’s governance.

Use that to your advantage, Istanbul!

K+S Urbanism – Will Mega-Retailers Kesko and S Group Ever Think Outside the Box?

Last year my neighborhood in Helsinki experienced a small, but curious change. A stuffy Czech-themed beerhouse called Milenka got refurbished into a somewhat trendy Scandinavian-style one, Ølhus Oslo. Now, the incident that a worn-out joint got replaced by something more hip is not exceptional at all – new eateries and bars get opened all the time in my neighborhood which these days continuously shows up on all sorts of “hipster” lists. Continue reading K+S Urbanism – Will Mega-Retailers Kesko and S Group Ever Think Outside the Box?

Six Major Developments Shaping Finnish Cities: 2014 in Review

Another exciting year has passed! To wrap up 2014, I decided to piece together what I think are the six most important developments that shaped Finnish cities during the past year.

Most things obviously weren’t invented this year nor did they directly affect every city; it’s better to grasp my list as themes that peaked to dominate urban policy discussions or to guide planning practice. Nonetheless, I feel that exceptionally much has happened on the Finnish urban development front and I believe the items on my list are likely to profoundly shape our cities and activities in them in the years ahead. Some of them I’ve already blogged about, some I’m looking back on now.

Here goes. Continue reading Six Major Developments Shaping Finnish Cities: 2014 in Review

Changing Work Patterns and the Rise of Urban Innovation Districts – The Future in Finland?

The changing nature of how and where we work seems to be hollowing out Finland’s science & business parks and industrial areas. Is the geography of innovation shifting and leaving cities facing a choice between sticking with a landscape of vacant business premises and nurturing lively innovation districts?

Last month an over 10,000-strong horde of startup entrepreneurs, venture capitalists and media representatives flocked to Helsinki to attend Slush, a two-day technology and startup event that seeks to pair great ideas with investors. Even the Chinese Vice Prime Minister Wang Jang joined the party. This is quite noteworthy since the concept only got started in 2008 by a small group of Finnish entrepreneurs who wanted to bring the local startup scene together at least once every year. Now Slush is one of the leading tech and startup events in the world. Continue reading Changing Work Patterns and the Rise of Urban Innovation Districts – The Future in Finland?

Pro Helsinki 2.0 – The Urbanist Vision for Making Helsinki Denser and More Diverse

Today I have the great pleasure of introducing you to the alternative city plan for Helsinki that I have worked on with my fantastic colleagues from Urban Helsinki since early 2014. It’s our second land-use plan done completely in do-it-yourself fashion, and after the small project at the edge of Helsinki’s inner city we did some months earlier. I’ve written two posts about this project in Pikku Huopalahti, you’ll find them here and here.

Our experiences and insights from working with Pikku Huopalahti eventually got us even more excited about doing something substantial to stir up discussions about Helsinki’s future. The city has been in the process of drafting a new strategic city plan to guide the city’s growth until 2050. Once enforced, this plan will necessarily have a tremendous impact on what Helsinki will be like 35 years from now – for better or for worse. To help make sure it won’t be the latter, we decided to draft our own strategic plan. Continue reading Pro Helsinki 2.0 – The Urbanist Vision for Making Helsinki Denser and More Diverse

City of Boulevards or City of Malls? Urban Transport Infrastructure Retrofits Are Changing the Urban Landscape in Helsinki and Tampere

This article has been written in collaboration with Panu Lehtovuori and was originally published in Project Baltia's issue 22 "Infrastructure". Project Baltia is a professional journal covering architecture, urban planning, and design in North-West Russia, Finland, and the Baltic states. The journal is published in St. Petersburg. Panu Lehtovuori is an architect and urbanist. Currently he works as the Professor of Planning Theory at Tampere University of Technology’s School of Architecture. Not all images were published in Project Baltia.

Substantial infrastructure investments are currently reshaping Helsinki and Tampere, Finland’s two largest urban centres. The aim of most ongoing projects is to create new hybrid urban landscapes which will replace or modify large-scale transport infrastructures. These changes are taking place, in particular, around rail terminals and mid-20th century urban highways. The Finnish projects echo transformations in many European and North American cities, where single-use traffic zones are being converted to mixed-use neighbourhoods and parks to boost cities’ livability. Continue reading City of Boulevards or City of Malls? Urban Transport Infrastructure Retrofits Are Changing the Urban Landscape in Helsinki and Tampere

PehmoGIS-menetelmillä kohti asuintoiveita priorisoivaa kaupunkikehittämistä

Yksi nykypäivän kaupunkisuunnittelun ydinongelmista on, että suunnittelua ohjaa joukko rakenteita, jotka eivät osaa lukea 2000-luvun kaupunkilaisten käsityksiä kiinnostavasta ja hyvästä kaupunkitilasta. Useimmat kaupunkien rakentamiseen liittyvät lakimme, virastomme ja käytäntömme on nimittäin luotu aikana, jolloin palvottiin modernismin alttaria ja sitä myötä tuottamaan takavuosien suunnittelijoiden ihanteiden mukaista yhtenäistä kaupunkitilaa ihmislähtöisyyden kustannuksella. Continue reading PehmoGIS-menetelmillä kohti asuintoiveita priorisoivaa kaupunkikehittämistä

Can SoftGIS Tools Help Us Rediscover the “Human Element” for Shaping Livable High Density Urban Neighborhoods?

The field of geography is a brilliant academic discipline that gives you a thorough understanding of the world and lets you focus on whatever interests you. And being the urbanist geographer that I am, this summer I’ve been thinking a lot about what my colleagues could do to help with creating better cities. The more I’ve thought about it, I’ve begun to discover that the answer may lie in the area of specialization that I always liked the least: GIS. Continue reading Can SoftGIS Tools Help Us Rediscover the “Human Element” for Shaping Livable High Density Urban Neighborhoods?

Finnish Mall Enthusiasts Add Little Value to Local Economies

Jeez, not another mall”, I thought out loud to myself when I read that Helsinki’s City Board unanimously approved to reserve a 2.5-hectare piece of land in Roihupelto, in the middle of Helsinki’s eastern suburbs for the development of a new shopping destination. Two developers want to see new big box stores and to transform an existing modern but run down industrial building into retail space. If all goes as planned, construction of the shopping complex could start already this year with the introduction of Motonet, a chain that markets itself as a “department store for car owners”.

The other developer already owns a shopping mall called Lanterna that specializes in furniture and interior design just opposite to the proposed development’s site. I hear the numbers of shoppers visiting Lanterna have lately showed a decreasing trend, so I suppose this new project is strongly linked to wishes of attracting more customers to the area. Continue reading Finnish Mall Enthusiasts Add Little Value to Local Economies

Tampere’s Aimless Urban Strategy of Planning for Cars and People

I’ve mostly written about Helsinki in my blog but since I also follow many interesting planning projects and discussions elsewhere in Finland, I want to expand my geographical scope now and then to share thoughts and insights from different corners of this urbanizing country. May this be the first one of many more.

Beyond the beautiful streets of Helsinki, I’m especially actively curious about what’s going on in Finland’s second largest urban center, Tampere.

Tampere is located on an isthmus between lakes Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi, a bit less than 200km north from Helsinki. The city often gets dubbed as Finland's Manchester because of its industrial heritage. Map by Google Maps.
Tampere is located on an isthmus between lakes Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi, a bit less than 200km north from Helsinki. The city often gets dubbed as Finland’s Manchester because of its industrial heritage. Map by Google Maps.

Continue reading Tampere’s Aimless Urban Strategy of Planning for Cars and People